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Programming in the Kitchen
Olav W. Bertelsen
In this paper we discuss issues for the integration of computing power in mundane artefacts. We do so with reference to a recent project with a manufacturer of ovens for larger kitchens and catering services. We introduce three levels of obstacles when integrating computers into mundane tools and point out how organisational issues are a source of interface problems. We conclude that the design of computer-based interfaces to mundane tools should encompass broader studies of the context of use and the history of the considered artefact.

Metaphors of Human Thinking: A New Tool in User Interface Design and Evaluation
Erik Frøkjær & Kasper Hornbæk
Understanding human thinking is crucial in the design and evaluation of human-computer interaction. Inspired by introspective psychology, we present five metaphors of human thinking. The aim of the metaphors is to help designers consider important traits of human thinking. We illustrate how to use the metaphors for usability evaluation and how good and poor user interfaces can be appreciated in terms of the metaphors. An experiment with 87 subjects show that usability evaluation by metaphors of human thinking compared to heuristic evaluation uncovers usability problems that are assessed as more severe on uses and more compels to repair.

User Centred Design through the Keyhole: Video Design Case
Ole Sejer Iversen& Jacob Buur
This paper develops a design case format capable of engaging design practitioners and design students in reflective dialog about their user centred design practice. The core idea is to present project team experience as a n open resource for reflections and learning. By exploring short snippets of video that document design team activities, designers are able to mirror and expand their own design practice. In a sense they learn from viewing and user centred design practice thorough a key hole and discussing what they see.

Perception of Human-centred Stories and Technical Descriptions when Analyzing and Negotiating Requirements
Georg Strøm
The present study investigates the perception of technical descriptions and of stories where the events are driven by the motivations and emotions of their characters. The study is explorative, using mixed qualitative and quantitative methods and with a total of 10 participants. The participants accepted the use of stories and strongly preferred stories with emotional and dramatic elements. The study indicates that human-centred stories encourage and facilitate detailed discussions of social aspects and situations of use, whereas technical descriptions may block such discussions. The study indicate that stories are no a reliable mean of changing the attitudes of the readers, and it shows that stories are not better that technical descriptions for communicating factual or technical information.

Command without a Click: Dwell Time Typing by Mouse and Gaze Selections
John Paulin Hansen
With dwell time activation, completely hands free interaction may be achieved by tracking the user's gaze positions. The first study presented compares typing by mouse click with dwell time typing on Danish on-screen keyboard with 10 large buttons which change according to character prediction. The second study compares mouse and eye-gaze dwell input on a similar Japanese keyboard, but without dynamic changes. In the first study, dwell time selectio0ns tend to be a little slower and the overproduction is higher than with click selections. In eh second study, mouse and gaze is almost equally fast, but mouse is far more precise than gaze. Consequently, the productivity in terms of characters per minus is 333% higher. The results suggest that users can be productive from the first encounter with dwell time activation, but productivity depends on their familiarity with the input structure and the input mode (i.e. hand or eye).

Usability Professionals' Personal Interest in Basic HCI Theory
Torkil Clemmensen
This paper proposes a way to identify professional knowledge in a heterogeneous HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) community of usability professionals, designers and researchers. The purpose of the paper is to help recognize different kinds of HCI professionals. The suggested framework relates individual experience, education and expertise to situational (short term) and personal (long term) inters in HCI theory. Interest in theory including educational and organizational background factors have been investigated in an online survey of 120 members of a Danish HCI community. An exploratory, multivariate analysis of the survey data identified relations between background factors and personal interest in HCI theory. In the conclusion, I present the two different kinds of professional knowledge identified in the survey and describe implications for HCI education and development of professional usability knowledge.

INTERACT 2003 1/2

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